Tourism and Hospitality

At the end of this module, we are looking forward to:
1. Understand what tourism is and will be able to define tourism.
2. Differentiate tourists from other travelers and international visitors from domestic visitors.


When referring to tourism, we may talk about the individuals who are visiting a place. They may be there for sightseeing, vacation, visiting friends and relatives, or simply having a great time. They spend their leisure in various activities like swimming, island hopping, or sports. They may simply be in the place to enjoy the environment. We may also say tourism refers to people that are participating during a convention. They may be participating in a business conference or professional activity. People that are taking an educational tour with an expert guide or performing scientific research or study can also mean tourism.

These visitors use all kinds of transportation that include cars, motorcycles, trains, taxis, or bicycles. They are taking a trip thus engaging in tourism.

Professor Hunziker and Krapf created one of the first accepted definitions of tourism. Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected to any earning activity.

United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), stated that tourism is a social, cultural, and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes. These people are called visitors (which may be either tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents) and tourism has to do with their activities, some of which involve tourism expenditure.

Britannica described tourism as the act and process of spending time away from home in pursuit of recreation, relaxation, and pleasure while making use of the commercial provision of services.

Defining tourism as the processes, activities, and outcomes emerging from connections and interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors is acceptable. Tourism is a combination of activities, services, and industries that deliver a travel experience: transportation, accommodations, eating and drinking establishments, shops, entertainment, activity facilities, and other hospitality services available for individuals or groups that are traveling away from home. It encompasses all providers of visitor and visitor-related services. Tourism is the whole world industry of travel, hotels, transportation, and all other components that, including promotion, serve the needs and wants of travelers. Finally, tourism is the sum total of tourist expenditures within the borders of a nation.


UNWTO classified visitors as tourists if his or her trip includes overnight stay or same-day travel.

A person visiting a country other than that of earning money is defined as visitor by the United Nations Conference on International Travel and Tourism in 1963.

There are 2 Classifications of visitors; tourists, and excursionists.

  • Tourists are temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours, whose purpose could be categorised as:
    • Leisure like recreation, religion, health, study, holiday, or sport
    • Business
    • Mission
    • Family
    • Meeting
  • Excursionists are brief visitors dwelling less than 24 hours in the destination visited and not making an overnight stay, including cruise travelers in transit.
One of the accepted definitions of tourism is that it comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes.”
  • International tourism
    • Inbound tourism: Visits to a country by nonresidents
    • Outbound tourism: Visits by residents of a country to another country
  • Internal tourism: Visits by residents and nonresidents of the country of reference
  • Domestic tourism: Visits by residents of a country to their own country
  • National tourism: Internal tourism plus outbound tourism (the resident tourism market for travel agents, airlines, and other suppliers)


Tourists are the people that move from one place to another by staying less than a year without the goal of earning. Any actions that involve tourists constitute to tourism, from accommodation, activities, and transportation.

Goeldner, C., R. (2009). Tourism (11th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from